The impact of risks is increasing around the world, with catastrophic impacts on the countries’ achievement of their development goals, the well-being of their citizens, and meeting their basic needs. The risks that lead to these disasters have become irregular and unconventional, with a greater likelihood of complex disasters caused by different hazards occurring at the same time.
Although we can recognize many of the risks that face us now and in the future, we must be well aware that the future is uncertain; there are many important and unexpected events that can happen but are difficult to predict. The more we sail into the future, the deeper the level of uncertainty we face.
Within this uncertain future environment, resilience is an important factor for success and sustaining achievements. Resilience is defined as the ability to anticipate and resist destructive events, minimize their adverse effects, respond to them effectively, maintain or restore functionality, and adapt in a way that allows for lesson-learning and recovery. In short, it is the development of the capabilities of countries, cities, citizens, and life systems to maintain their effectiveness and efficiency under various future conditions.